ShenZhen Haohaichang Industrial Co.,Ltd.
ShenZhen Haohaichang Industrial Co.,Ltd.

CNC Lathe Machining and its Equipment Configuration

A lathe is a machine tool that holds the workpiece firmly on the spindle, allowing it to rotate at high speeds while the cutting tool feeds into it, resulting in precise machining. The lathe is powered by a motor through a system of belts and gears, driving the spindle's rotation. The chuck mounted on the spindle clamps the workpiece, and a fixed tool holder is used to perform various turning operations on the workpiece. Typical workpiece tasks include turning end faces, inside and outside diameters, arcs, tapers, drilling, boring, eccentric machining, embossing, grooving, and threading.


Lathe Structure

Machine Head

This part encompasses the spindle, spindle gear transmission system, and external gear train. The spindle supports the chuck for workpiece clamping, the spindle gear transmission system drives spindle rotation and provides variable speed control, while the external gear train manages the feed for automatic feed and thread turning.


The bed, typically made of cast iron, serves as the foundation for the spindle head, tool slides, and tailstock. The bed features flat guides and V-rails to allow precise movement of the tool slide and tailstock.

Tool Holder Assembly

This assembly is comprised of the saddle, which accommodates various types of rotating tools and holders. Composite tool holders are equipped with a longitudinal feed mechanism that allows adjustment of the turning angle and taper angle. The transverse feed handwheel plays a vital role in controlling the outer diameter.


The longitudinal feed handwheels control the forward and backward movements of the tool slide, adjusting the length during rough turning. The horizontal and vertical automatic feed mechanisms cooperate with the lathe's external gear train to enable automatic rotation at varying feed rates. The external gear train also controls the thread cutting mechanism, with the thread turning indicator facilitating the desired pitch for thread cutting.

Automatic Feed and Thread Cutting Mechanism

The spindle's power is transmitted to the external gear train, driving the lead screw's rotation for automatic feed and thread turning.



The tailstock is used to accommodate a drill chuck or taper shank drill for center drilling, boring, tapping, and reaming. It also serves for mounting the top center.

Additional Lathe Accessories:

Lathe Collet: A mechanical device responsible for clamping workpieces to the machine tool.

Lathe Faceplate: This fixture accessory, often made of round metal, is equipped with radial or irregularly parallel elongated grooves for drilling, boring, or shaping irregularly shaped workpieces or those that cannot be clamped otherwise.

Lathe Center: The top center supports the workpiece, mounted at the spindle's end. It is referred to as the live center when located at the spindle end, and the dead center when placed in the tailstock.

Lathe Drive Disc: This disc is mounted on the lathe's spindle, driving the working jaws to enable rotation.

Lathe Collet Chuck: This part is essential for clamping small-diameter workpieces to the spindle's end, primarily used in hexagonal and automatic lathes.

Lathe Steady Rest: A stabilizing support for slender workpieces, ensuring minimal deflection during processing.

Lathe Angle Plate: Used as an aid for workpieces that cannot be directly mounted on the faceplate.

Lathe V-Groove Block (V-Card Block): It helps determine the center position of the workpiece.

Lathe Turning Tool: Used for shaping the workpiece's appearance.

What Is CNC Lathe Machining?

CNC lathe machining predominantly focuses on processing cylindrical workpieces such as rings and bars. CNC lathe machining is an evolution of traditional lathe machining and is not a recent innovation. In this context, "NC" stands for "numerical control," using numerical values and symbols to govern machine movements. "CNC" stands for "Computer Numerical Control," utilizing computer memory and input/output signals for machine control. CNC lathe machining is a computer-driven, numerically controlled lathe processing technology that eliminates the need for human intervention.


Product Description of CNC Lathe Machining:

CNC lathe machining is a subset of precision machining in CNC machinery. It encompasses two key processes: turning the workpiece, clamped either on the lathe tool or rotated, and moving the tool holder horizontally and vertically to ensure precision machining. Additionally, it can process various tools like drills, reamers, taps, molds, and knurling tools. CNC lathe machining primarily targets the machining of rotating workpieces' shafts, discs, and sets, and it's a widely used technique in precision machining.

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